[79] It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States[75] and United Kingdom. Some valuable constituents contained in Mullein are Coumarin and Hesperidin, they exhibit many healing abilities. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. [1] As for many plants, (Pliny the Elder described it in his Naturalis Historia),[note 5] great mullein was linked to witches,[31] although the relationship remained generally ambiguous, and the plant was also widely held to ward off curses and evil spirits. Mullein is an invasive herb now considered naturalized to many countries. Cough (Children & Infants) Dana … [11] The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). Great Mullein is found growing on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground, most often on gravel, sand or chalk. Those active ingredients include unique compounds, such as verbascose and verbasterol, as well as coumarins, ascorbic acid, saponins, and other antioxidants.For this reason, this herb can be ingested, smoked or applied topically in different forms … giganteum and subsp. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant. Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. Great Mullein is common and widespread throughout Britain and Ireland except for the far north. Mullein is an alien, naturalized, biennial herb. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. Then it grows an impressive stem the height of a person with a yellow blossom on top. into the United States as an herbal or ornamental plant. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). The leaves of the Great Mullein are hairy, giving this plant a downy white appearance. European reference books call it "great mullein". giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. Constituents: Phenolic glycosides... Dec 06. It is dependent upon its long lived seed for regeneration which it produces in prodigious amounts. [8][9] They become smaller higher up the stem,[3][4] and less strongly decurrent down the stem. Clumps of seedlings and low rosettes will arise the first year. (In some field guides this species is referred to as Common Mullein.). ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. Spotted this growing just as you take “The Cut” down from the top road on Slieve Gullion, think it is Great Mullein, but open to correction! [53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. (× V. [31], The plant has been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations. [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. Check out these photos of a fascinating plant. Banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and Banko, Winston E. (1999). Mullein is drought-resistant and grows easily from seed. All parts of the plants are covered with star-shaped trichomes. Habitat: Widely found in Europe and Asia. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Given a seed source and a canopy opening, common mullein is a potential inhabitant of nearly any vegetation or community type. crassifolium were originally described as species. Moth mullein (top) and beardtongue (bottom) Other species with unusual and persistent seed pods that I like to incorporate into arrangements are beardtongue ( Penstemon digitalis ), a great native plant for pollinators, and moth mullein ( Verbascum blattaria ), a non-native weed. [5] The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers[3] that can occupy up to half the stem length. It acts by reducing the formation of mucus and stimulating the coughing up of phlegm, and is a specific treatment for tracheitis and bronchitis[254]. Common mullein threatens natural meadows and forest openings, where it adapts easily to a wide variety of site conditions. Great mullein is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy, valued for its efficacy in the treatment of pectoral complaints[4]. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. Description: Dicotyledonous, biennial plant, grows up to 2 meters. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". They are native to Europe and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. [67], Other insects commonly found on great mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus in particular. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. Native to Europe, North Africa and Asia, neutralized in Australia and America. and V. × thapsi L. (syn. Mullein Habitat- Where to Find Mullein. Great Mullein has long been used in herbal medicine, where its emollient quality (as a skin moisturiser) and its astringent properties have been exploited. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers. By the second year, the mature plants will provide a tall vertical element in the garden. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. A location in full sun is preferable, but mullein will grow in light shade. It prefers dry sandy soil, but can be found in a variety of well-drained soils in meadows and forest gaps. Alias' : mullein, great mullein, wooly mullein, flannel plant, velvet plant, lungwort, feltwort, Jacob’s staff, torchplant. A survey of town and country walls in Easter Ross. Great Mullein has been used as an alternative medicine for centuries, and in many countries throughout the world, the value of Great Mullein as a proven medicinal herb is now backed by scientific evidence. The flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels (2 mm, 0.08 in). The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. Research indicates some of the uses as analgesic, antihistaminic, anti … [11], For the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae family of angiosperms. Growth and Habitat. Viola odorata Violaceae Names: Violet. Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy. Sweet Violet. Sow a small pinch of seeds about 18 inches apart and 1/16 inch deep in ordinary, well-drained soil, toward the back of the border or bed. Verbascum Thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. Family: Scrophulariaceae family of plants (as in Snapdragon). Description & Habitat: Mullein is a native of Europe and Western Asia. In North America, South America and Australia Verbascum thapsus is an introduced alien species. Latin Name : Verbascum thapsus. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. The yellow, candle-like flower spikes of Great mullein can reach up to 2m in height, making this an impressive plant of dry and grassy ground, including gardens, waste ground and roadside verges. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. Common mullein. [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. [19][68] A study found V. thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families. The seeds will keep in the … Other past uses for this plant have included the dyeing of fabrics. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. David L. Hoffmann BSc Hons MNIMH. Mullein is a biennial plant, the first … [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=999782674, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 23:04. The specific epithet thapsus means 'from Thapsus', an ancient (now ruined) village near Carthage, in Sicily, and so as you might expect this wildflower is indeed very common on Sicily. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. [67] It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. 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