There are, reports of regional preferences in USA for pale to deep, pigmentation, whilst consumers in the UK tend to prefer a, ity of lipid soluble pigments such as carotenoids in, feedstuff, feed sources (e.g. In addition, it is the only species known, muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and, pale pink colour, while raw thigh and leg meat appears, dark red. Broiler parent birds (‘broiler breeders’) Nutritional value of higher welfare chicken meat Chickens specially bred for meat production ‘broilers’. They observed decrease in palmitic, palmi-. /Usage << The shear force values were highest in IB1 (11.27), but not significantly different (p > .05) from IB3 (9.97) and IB4 (9.85). HB-1/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. /Encoding << >> /FirstChar 32 These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties 51 0 obj With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. acid (CLA) is another fatty acid which is anti-carcinogenic. The efficiency of processing is largely dependent on the uniformity of the birds, so that each machine can do a repeated movement with little or no adjustment between birds. Further, they have reported proportional increase of, colour values of irradiated meat with increasing dose of, radiation. /C 539 © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. bility is important e.g. cation, nutritional losses and toxic compound production. After death, the faster development of rigor mortis increases the likelihood of paler color and reduced water holding capacity and poorer quality of further processed products. The, correlation of corticosterone to colour of meat has been, term elevation of plasma corticosterone levels produce, changes in color of the breast and thigh muscles, respec-, tively and they concluded that higher plasma corticosterone, levels in broilers were undoubtedly associated with PSE-, postmortem glycolysis, temperature, and pH are the three, most important factors contributing to the physicoch, changes observed in PSE. /Helv 26 0 R endobj ���X�x�^�*+�,���3���^N�;c����Φ��1g�+��Aa��b���|Ȳ��f���rD���*��2nYX_h��4���!T�$�WP ͯX�r�d���5kv�1i� �Ï*�\
�H�ל�z(LH�.����&DM[��)$jA���tŁ����f�]�v�,(z7��Ů�� NIR data were subsequently submitted to partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). prohibits atherosclerosis, improves immune function, reduces body fat and improves meat yield (Du and Ahn, increase in protein content and a decrease in the fat content. Shear values of IC fillets removed 0 and 1.67 h after chilling were similar and corresponded to sensory panel categories of slightly tough to tough (> 8 kg/g). females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). /Marked true /Event /View This study determined the meat quality characteristics of different parts of a broiler carcass obtained from chicken fed on diets formulated using either maize (Zea mays) or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) as the source of energy.Six diets that differed on the sorghum/maize replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) were fed to 120-day old broiler. >> • Dietary inclusion levels of I. belina meal increased body weight gains in dietary treatment groups. Pyridoxine and pantothenic acid were com-, pletely stable after freeze–drying and about 20% loss of in, dienoic fatty acids occurred during freeze–drying. 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-1/4CFAC) of breast fillets at –12°C, and 4) HB-1/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-1/4CFAC). determine the ﬁnal ﬂavour of meat (Liu et al. 12th European poultry conference by World's Poultry Science Association, Verona, Italy, World Poultry Sci. during prolonged storage of conventionally canned foods. Poult Sci 80:501–507, Crespo N, Esteve-Garcia E (2001) Dietary fatty acid proﬁle modiﬁes, abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. yield and breast meat yield (Smith et al. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a member of medium-chain α-monoglycerides (MG), is proved to be beneficial for productive performance, feed efficiency, and health of broilers based on recent research. 67: … Recently, consumers have become cautious of using, GMO (genetically modiﬁed organisms) feed components in, animal nutrition, although no dangerous transfer of plant. concern with respect to nutritional quality of broiler meat. 9th European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry, Meat, Kusadasi (Turkey), 9–12 September, pp 109–115, Wang LJ, Byrem TM, Zarosley J et al (1999) Skeletal muscle calcium, channel ryanodine binding activity in genetically unimproved, and commercial turkey populations. /FontDescriptor 90 0 R document gives an overview of a typical broiler chicken’s life. >> In general primary, processing, except wet chilling, has very little impact on, of poultry chilling are to increase food safety for con-, sumers and extend product shelf-life for marketing. 35 0 obj John KA, Maalouf J, Barsness CB, Yuan K, Cogswell ME, Gunn JP, (2016) Do lower calorie or lower fat foods have more sodium. /ItalicAngle 0 However, contrary to this, Aletor et al. In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Broiler carcasses, exposed to higher temperatures during processing exhibit, rapid rates of glycolysis and a premature onset of rigor, increase in protein denaturation with a temperature, peratures show accelerated glycolysis and toughened breast, meat and vice versa. Poult Sci 81:428–433, Farrell D (2013) The role of poultry in human nutrition. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Poultry Sci. Appearance, texture, juiciness, wateriness, firmness, tenderness, odor and flavor are the most important and perceptible meat features that influence the initial and final quality judgment by consumers before and after purchasing a meat product. Sci Teacher 37:59–63. >> Philipp, Cholan P, Rao VK, Karthikeyan B et al (2011) Effect of different, cooking methods on physicochemical, organoleptic and micro-, biological quality of chicken patties. Sante et, reported that high performance turkey breeds have a higher, rate of meat pH decline (2 times higher) compared to slow, growing breeds and similar trend were also observed in, altered breast muscle metabolism due to intense selection, for growth and body composition traits in broilers. /Descent -328 NutritionFacts.org, nutritionfacts.org/2014/02/27/trans-fat-in-animal-fat/, Groom GM (1990) Factors affecting poultry meat quality. denaturation, low light scattering and hence translucent, greater protein denaturation, causing increased light scat-, The main issues with broiler meat colour are muscle, type (dark or light meat), colour variation and colour, defects. completion of rigor varies with species, muscle, ﬁber type, holding temperature, rate of glycolysis and the extent of, struggling at the time of death. Broiler meat is an option because it can cause pleasure for those who consume it In, probably due to a lower end temperature of the breast meat, was also retained in breast meat compared to the thigh, meat because of thicker and larger size of brea, Thus time of exposure to heat has more impact than tem-, product. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of MG mixture rich in GML and glycerol monodecanoate on performance, intestinal development, serum parameters, carcass yield, and muscle composition in broilers. << Two hundred and fifty Ross male chickens were assigned to two different systems of production: conventional, housing in an indoor pen (0.12 m 2 /bird); organic, housing in an indoor pen (0.12 m 2 /bird) with access to a grass paddock (4 m 2 /bird). 667 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 0 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 /Type /Font /D << Chicken meat consumers look into lean meat quality, while producers look into a heavy weight of chicken per unit of production. The Red Ranger broiler chickens have an excellent conformation of white and dark meat yields, a tender texture with the flavor of a slow growing bird. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. state of the haem pigments, pre-slaughter factors (genetics, feed, handling, stress, heat and cold stress, gaseous envi-, ronment), slaughter, chilling and processing conditions, (stunning techniques, presence of nitrates, additives and, pH, ﬁnal cook temperature, reducing conditions, irradia-, and physical appearance of meat, dependent on post-, mortem temperature and pH, inﬂuence the amount, that is reﬂected from the interior and exterior of the meat, surface because light scattering is directly proportional to, the extent of protein denaturation (Lawrie, scattering affect meat lightness (L*) in a fashion inverse to, that caused by heme pigment concentration, having a. minimal effect on meat redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). SANDERCOCK, D.A., BARKER, Z.E., MITCHELL, M.A. Genetic variation among birds could contribute to large, differences in the rate of rigor mortis completion and meat, quality. 43 0 obj /LastChar 122 The rate of freezing has a strong bearing on, drip losses resulting in losses of B vitamins during thawing, freezing and thawing of meat disrupts the cell membranes. Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat. The reduction of reactive, groups occurs because the pH of the muscle reaches the, isoelectric point at which positive and negative charges on, the reactive groups of the proteins are equal which attract, each other leaving almost nothing to react with the charged, groups of water and thus impairing the ability of the pro-, energy supply results in accumulation of actinomyosin, complexes which causes loss of space between the. USDA (2009) Temperatures and chilling and freezing procedures. Such pre-slaughter conditions usually lead to pale, soft, and, exudative (PSE) meat, which in turn results lower pos-, sessing yields, increased cooking losses, and reduced, muscle degeneration. /ca 1 H��Wmo�F�+�x��M'�[�nE��]k����cˎZ�N��,�~��$�N�u�0PN'��|H�o��R�������lt�Wd�ѥ)h]ӯ��[z�|��|#!�hK9���څ*�D�-Cic�)��E�\ӓ�뜞��5�n��m�F�
צ��*����]���$�U�����M��Ū�2���P�Mo�u�5�yYڕշ��\�l�����/-���و�V�d4���hF&i�?Sx���N%���:_f��u�:� sory and rehydration properties and microstructures. 556 500 500 500 389 389 278 556 444 667 500 444 389 ] Ante-mortem tem-, perature stress and excitement just prior to slaughter has, been shown to affect turkey meat colour more than that of, content and the muscle pH contribute to meat colour and, The main factors affecting poultry meat colour are the. Though, challenged by the factors like cross-, contamination, wastewater management, reshackling, and, most popular method of chilling as compared to air. The duration of frozen storage is limited because of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the depot fat. Indian J Poult Sci, Contreras CC, Beraquet N (2001) Electrical stunning, hot boning and, quality of chicken breast meat. and changes the internal structure of biological materials. thiobarbituric reactive substances (TABRS) in tissues and, signiﬁcantly improve meat functional properties under heat, stress. /Type /Catalog Culioli J, Berri C, Mourot J (2003) Muscle Foods: consumption, composition and quality. of pale, soft exudative (PSE) pork and poultry muscle. Conclusions muscle percentage and lower feed conversion ratio. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts? endobj In summary, these findings revealed that mixed MG can be used as an effective and novel feed supplement to improve productive performance and quality of broilers. >> endobj Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. and ventral side a* and yellowness (b*) values. /PageElement << various parameters like meat quality traits (0.35–0.81). (2010) attribute the results to the fact that Standard feed, withdrawal period prior to slaughter reduces stress with, positive effects on slaughter yield and tenderness of meat, unloading, slaughtering and processing of birds are. Additional supplementation with β-glucan, VE and tryptophan had no notable benefits. endstream However, when the ATP concentration falls below 1, of tissue, the dissociation between actin and myosin is, arrested and the onset of rigor mortis, a vital process for. On day 28 and 35 FI of broiler chickens fed control (147.47 g; 178.45 g) was the highest. and Uijttenboogaart, T.G. >> ﬁsh oils, antioxi-, dants, vitamins and trace minerals), xanthophyll stability, and biological availability and management and processing. Ninety-six samples were analysed by both NIR tools at 2, 6, 10 and 14 days post-mortem. Development of PSE condition is also dependent on the, type of muscle ﬁber involved. most affected by Radappertization causing oxidation, degradation, and decarboxylation of the lipid fraction, tion increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS) increased in chicken and turkey breasts resp, tively. meat yield production, sometimes the quality will be sacrificed. Poultry meat quality is determined by many aspects such as appearance, texture, water-holding capacity, pH, and freshness, ... Poultry meat quality is determined by many aspects such as appearance, texture, water-holding capacity, pH, and freshness (Mir et al., 2017). Bender AE (1978) Food processing and nutrition. /Descent -307 charged reactive groups on adjacent protein chains, reducing the electrostatic repulsion between them (Wis-, available for water to be retained intramuscularly and, increases the amount of water expelled to the extracellular, pH has a direct bearing on the meat quality attributes such, as tenderness, water-holding capacity, colour, juiciness and, shelf life. In 4 replications, null Intense selection for, heavier carcasses and thicker muscles have led to increase, in time required to reduce the internal musculature tem-, perature, thus decreasing chilling rates and consequently, increasing the exposure time of carcasses to elevated, cooling to ward off the potential detrimental PSE-like. In: Price JF, Schweigert BS (eds) The science of meat and meat, products. (John, candidates to meet this emerging demand because of their. The Influence of the Season and Market Class of Broiler Chickens on Breast Meat Quality Traits, Effect of Chilling Method and Deboning Time on Broiler Breast Fillet Quality. digestion revealed the availability of lysine, cystine, methionine, and tryptophan reduced to less than 50% after, canning. Extraction of Bacterial Selenium Content beneﬁcial for human health. endobj Also, cooking for prolonged periods caused, ). In Germany duck and goose meat consumption per head amounts to 0.92 kg and 0.34 kg, respectively, but more than 40% of duck meat and 86% of goose meat are imported. Effects of coating preparation methods on yields and composition of fried parts were studied. LC-PUFA are produced in aged muscle, but not in un-aged, muscle along with the lipid changes causing an increase in, ﬁllets for a longer period of time before marination would, marinade and overall product yield, cook loss, and overall, commonly accepted method of food preservation to ensure, the safety of meat products in the global meat export, market. 58, June 2002 Poultry meat quality: D.L. In: Poultry, development review. /Subtype /BG Bilgili SF (2002) Slaughter quality as inﬂuenced by feed withdrawal. The maximum ﬂavour development, occurs during the sexual maturation of broilers due to, changes in the lipid fraction or fatty acid composition. Incorrect stunning and high scalding temperatures affect the appearance of the carcasses. /Type /ExtGState in water and ice, Consumer acceptability of broiler meat depends on its tenderness and appearance, main cause of incidence hardness broiler meat cutting and boning the carcass before the completion of rigor mortis. • The shear force in all dietary treatment groups decreased compared to the control. Further processed product can be either ‘‘ready to eat’, the time of preparation and efforts of the consumer; they, have implied that further processing reduce the nutritional, value of poultry meat. These fixed costs are incurred by the plant regardless of the presence of birds, and therefore need to be paid by the production of poultry meat. The production of broiler chickens is the most dynam-ically developing part of the poultry farming sector because of the short chicken rearing time, while main-taining good quality meat and low costs associated with the production (Vissers et al., 2019). Dietary MG significantly (P < 0.05) increased the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and superoxide dismutase content in broilers. However, with the improved standard of living, meat quality has received tremendous attention and become one of the most important factors affecting consumer preferences in recent years (Petracci et al., 2017). /ON [ 42 0 R ] /DR << Time of aging has a marked impact on the nutritional, quality of poultry meat. ). In: XXII World Poultry Congress Istanbul, Huang ZB, Leibovitz H, Lee CM et al (1990) Effect of dietary ﬁsh oil. Definitions For the purpose of this chapter: Broiler: means a bird of the species Gallus gallus kept for commercial meat production. /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 >> >> Offer G, Knight P (1988) The structural basis of water-holding in. Mottling, extreme paleness (PSE-like condition), or darkness and appearance defects such as bruises, poor, bleeding, haemorrhages, bone darkening and other blood, related problems of meat have reﬂected badly on poultry, Texture is probably the most important quality factor, associated with consumer satisfaction in the eating quality, of poultry. Bender, boiled for 15 min caused the loss of 80% of water-soluble, vitamins, muscle extractives and proteins, though, dena-. Asian–Australas J Anim Sci, Ludvigsen J (1954) Undersogelser over den sakaldte ‘‘muskeldegen-, Ma RT-I, Addis PB (1973) The association of struggle during, exsanguination to glycolysis, protein solubility and shear in, turkey pectoralis muscle. Animals 2020, 10, 761 3 of 14 2. and broilers has not been established yet. Keywords: Chicken, meat, essential oils, zeolite, antioxidants. and protein retention does not vary with chilling methods. /BaseFont /VFYUSC+TimesNewRomanPSMT /OP false A higher incidence of PSE was observed in birds, treated with succinylcholine compared to non-treated, control birds suggesting that the PSE problem in poultry, meat could have the same origin as in pork meat. ANIMAL WELFARE AND BROILER CHICKEN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Article 7.10.1. /RBGroups [ ] >> However, feeding of high, density (high energy, high protein) diets result in an, improved carcass yield and decreased fatness, with more, distinct responses in males (Hess and Bilgili, increase of protein and amino acid content of carcasses has, been reported by reducing dietary fat and increasing crude. Thomas and Cal-, favored by freeze–drying raw poultry and least favored by, irradiation. for 3 min (soft scalding). J Food Sci 38:1232–1237, Lee KH, Kim HJ, Lee HJ et al (2012) A Study on components related, to ﬂavour and taste in commercial broiler and Korean native, chicken meat. directly into the vapor phase (Liu et al. Biochemical and, ultrastructural observations. /FontFamily (Times New Roman) Food Chem 120:1025–1030, Spanier AM, Flores M, Mcmillin KW et al (1997) The effect of post-. /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding freezing during rigor caused the most drip loss upon thawing, the lowest protein solubility, larger losses of nitrogen con-. /SA true Further processing of poultry meat and its quality, In poultry industry the term ‘‘further processed’’ is used in, industry. impact on nutritional value of poultry meat is as follows. /CA 1 Nutrients 8:511. doi: Josephson ES, Peterson MS (1983) Radappertization of meat, poultry, ﬁnﬁsh, shellﬁsh and special diets. (TA-WIC), The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. The relative weight of the internal organ is significantly higher (p<0.001) in the local Omani chicken than in the broiler chickens. << /op false Meat Sci 83:431–437, Calkins CR, Hodgen JM (2007) A fresh look at meat ﬂavour. /Event /Export an early maturation period ranging between 4 - 6 h. unavoidable steps which have impact on meat quality, particularly consumption characteristics. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Prior to cutting and boning, to obtain a juicy meat is needed to apply. As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. >> Pergamon Press, New, Le Bihan-Duval E, Millet N, Remignon H (1999) Broiler meat, quality: effect of selection for increased carcass quality and, estimates of genetic parameters. << The amounts of these important fatty acids, partic-. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. Kluwer, Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 115–130, Millar S, Wilson R, Moss BW et al (1994) Oxymyoglobin formation, Millares R, Fellers CR (1949) Vitamin and amino acid content of, processed chicken meat. aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glycine, alanine, tyrosine, lysine, and arginine. lipids and minerals at proportions between 18.4 and 23.4%. Food, Wilkinson SJ, Scott TA (2005) Satellite cells: a review of their, physiology, manipulation and importance to muscle develop-, ment. /Filter /FlateDecode Stocking density is one of the most import. In: Options, and Advisory Service (ADAS), Fisheries and Food, Cambridge, Guarnieri PD, Soares AL, Olivo R et al (2004) Pre-slaughter handling, with water shower spray inhibits PSE (pale, soft, exudative), broiler breast meat in a commercial plant. James SJ (2002) New developments in the chilling and freezing of, James C, Vincent C, de Andrade Lima TI, James SJ (2006) The, primary chilling of poultry carcasses—a review. Thus, to prevent apparition of rough meat literature describes a number of studies that focused on finding the optimum aging time. /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageI ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The quantiﬁable properties of. They argued that fatty acids could cause an inhi-, ). It is advisable for farmers to process their meat products within the business and before selling because the product will attract better prices than relatively unprocessed meat. /OPM 1 /Length 1626 The bacterial contamination of the carcass of ducks was increased by preslaughter stress. enzyme activity involved in postmortem glycolysis. Article, please use the accepted manuscript, version for posting on your own website meat quality of broiler chicken pdf changes the... 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