battle of the granicus

The Granicus has long been identified with the river now known as the Kocabaş Cay, and on this point, there is now general agreement.222 (When I wrote my original thesis, the prevailing view amongst scholars on this subject was that the Granicus River had not changed its course since the time of this battle. Upon stabilizing rebellious conditions among the various Greek city-states, he crossed the Hellespont and travelled along the northern coast of Anatolia (present-day Turkey) avoiding the mountain ranges of the northern uplands to the site of ancient Troy. Rupert Matthews has been fascinated by battlefields since his father took him to Waterloo when he was nine years old. A map showing the locations of battles in ancient Greece. While Alexander and his men were at Troy, the Persians held a council of local satraps to discuss the arrival of the young Macedonian and possible strategies to defend against him. After the death of his father Phillip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE), Alexander set his sights on the Persian Empire seeking revenge, or so he claimed, for the invasion of his homeland by Darius I and Xerxes during the Persian Wars. In November of 333 BCE, Alexander and Darius would face each other at Issus. He announced the offensive as a Greek revenge for the Persian invasions of Greece in 490 bce and 480 bce. Amid the sound of trumpets, Alexander and his men plunged into the water and up the opposing bank diagonally. fight for him without question. The local satraps rejected the idea in part because Memnon was Greek but also because they did not want their lands destroyed. Back home, statues honoring the 25 fallen Companions were erected at the sanctuary of Zeus at Dium near Mount Olympus. 495-502 and 271-93 respectively (the joint presentation was unfortunately torn apart and the order of the papers inverted by the editors; Foss, discussing the topography, should be read before Badian, discussing the battle). The Battle of Granicus River - 334 BCThe Battle of Granicus was the first battle between Alexander The Great and the Persian Empire. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Was this a tactical error … To honor all who had died in battle, Alexander buried both Greek and Persians alike (although the Persians normally burned their dead). Related Content Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes . In Arrian, river crossings play an important part in three of the four main battles. According to Arrian and other sources, Alexander made himself extremely conspicuous both by the “brightness of his arms” and the “respectful countenance of his staff.” He was also quite noticeable by the large white plume on his helmet. Memnon himself led the Persian center. Otherwise he describes the combat in the same way, including Alexander's brush with death and his personal combat with all the Persian nobles. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. We must get used to these figures as he does not provide any more ahead of his account of the Battle of the Granicus, which begins in chapter 16. A map showing the route that Alexander the Great took to conquer... A map showing the Battle of the Granicus River, May 334 BCE. Losses: Macedonian, 400 dead and 2,000 wounded of 40,000; Persian, 5,000 dead and 2,000 captured of 50,000. Corrections? Memnon, a high-ranking Greek mercenary loyal to Darius, suggested applying a burned-earth policy - to destroy crops, farms, and villages - depriving Alexander of any possible provisions. The Persian army consisted predominantly of cavalry but it also had a substantial number of Greek mercenary infantry. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. In The Life of Alexander the Great historian Plutarch discussed Alexander’s trip to Troy where he honored Homer’s hero Achilles. For a brief moment, both armies stood across from each other in silence. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Persian cavalry could neither move forward because of the river banks nor pull back because of the location of the infantry. Alexander quickly ran him through. Although causing considerable damage to the attacking center, the Persian weaponry did not match well against the Macedonians – light javelins versus 15-foot lances. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). As more Persians joined the attack against the Macedonian center, attention was drawn away from Alexander. Plutarch spoke of this encounter saying: The mercenary Greeks, who, making a stand upon a rising ground, desired quarter, which Alexander, guided rather by passion than judgment refused to grant, and charging them himself first, had his horse (not Bucephalus) killed under him. The council decided to put the arriving Macedonians on the defensive by gathering their combined forces and wait for Alexander at the River Granicus. The Persian cavalry could neither move forward because of the river banks nor pull back because of the location of the infantry. Alexander replied, according to Plutarch, that it would “disgrace the Hellespont should he fear the Granicus.” The historian Arrian spoke of this encounter by saying that Alexander realized that the Persians did not fear him because they did not know him. …by three satraps, at the Granicus (modern Kocabaş) River, near the Sea of Marmara (May/June 334). He had wished to avoid a pitched battle, conduct a scorched-earth policy in Asia, fortify maritime and naval bases on the coast and cut Alexander off from the sea. Darius’s Greek mercenaries were largely massacred, but…, …an Achaemenid army at the Granicus and, by the following year, had won most of Asia Minor and reached Cilicia. Assemble for battle on the Granicus. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Let us know. Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 20 December 2011 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. During the engagement at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander and his army did not have to engage Darius III and the massive hordes of the Persian directly.At the time Alexander was not seen as a threat and it was thought in Persia his invasion was going to be short lived. 300 suits of Persian armor were sent home to Athens to remind the Greeks that Granicus was only one step in the war of revenge against the Persians. The battle on the Granicus [16.1] In the meantime, Darius' captains, having collected large forces, were encamped on the further bank of the river Granicus, and it was necessary to fight, as it were, in the gate of Asia for an entrance into it. Spithridates, another Persian commander, raised his own weapon to attack Alexander, but Cleitus the Black attacked him first, severing Spithridates’s arm, saving Alexander’s life. The best account in the ancient sources, which include Diodorus Siculus (1st century bc) and Plutarch’s Life of Alexander (2nd century ad), is that of Arrian’s Anabasis (2nd century ad), which draws directly from contemporary accounts. As Alexander rose from the waters of the Granicus, he noticed Mithridates, Darius’s son-in-law, riding with a squadron of cavalry - detached from the main Persian forces. Arrian wrote: He himself led the right wing with sounding of trumpets, and the men raising the war-cry to Enyallus. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Battle Summary Map - This map shows, in Pseudo 3D, the most important movements of the Battle. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He saved Alexander's life at the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC and was killed by him in a drunken quarrel six years later. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Greek mercenaries serving in the Persian army tried to surrender, but Alexander treated them as traitors. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. Battle Granicus-en.svg; Autor: Battle Granicus-en.svg: Andrei Nacu, from the English Wiki; derivative work: Gizmo II ¿Eu? Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Together with the lack of true leadership - besides Memnon - the battle was lost before it was begun. Cite This Work Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 20 Dec 2011. 2 reasons. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. At the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 B.C. Alexander attacked, slashing Mithridates across the face. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." This army included a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. His goal was simple: to defeat Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) and conquer the vast Persian Empire. 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